The papers are grouped into different themes. Please scroll down the page to find my papers under the theme that interests you. In some cases you will be able to download the full article.




DEVELOPMENT THEORY (including aspects of economic, political, and planning theory)










Rural poverty and agribusiness: introduction, working paper, and edited conference proceedings. DP-104: Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK.. 1977

Agriculture is the key to progress. Communications series: IDS, 1989

Farming, fertility, food: why has Bangladesh done better than expected? Can it continue to do so? Keynote address, 1st Bangladesh Economic Forum, Dhaka, 21 June 2014 (revised 1 Aug 2014). Pp. 372-400 in Bangladesh: Vision 2030, ed. Sadiq Ahmed, Mohiuddin Alamgir, Mustafa Mujeri and Atiur Rahman. Dhaka: Bangladesh Institute of Bank Management, 2015 At

Learning from others: increasing agricultural productivity for human development in sub-Saharan Africa. UN Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Africa. WP #007 of 2012. Background paper for Africa Human Development Report. At http://

Agricultural credit and rural finance

Agricultural finance and rural credit markets in poor countries World Development 1976, 4(7):543-53

Agriculture and Non-Agriculture in Institutional Credit: A Note. Economic and Political Weekly, 25 September 1976, 11(39):1571-1572

Rural credit, farm finance and village households. Development Policy Review 1980, 13(2):35-48

Land reform, land distribution and farm size

Towards a theory of land reform. In David Lehmann (ed.), Agrarian Reform and Agrarian Reformism. 1968. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

The growing grass roots of Indian inequality. J. Peasant Studies 1975, 2(2):236-241

Case for small farms in developing countries. World Economy 1980, 3(3):377-379

Land assets and rural poverty. Staff working paper #744. 1985 At

Land reform as commenced business: the evidence against stopping. World Development 1993, 21(4):641-57

Can small farmers survive, prosper, or be the key channel to cut mass poverty? The Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics 2006, 3(1):58-85. At

Farm Size. With Robert Eastwood and Andrew Newell. In: Handbook of Agricultural Economics, 4: Agricultural Development: Farm Policies and Regional Development. Handbooks in economics, 4, 18, 2010: 3323-3394. At

Premature deagriculturalisation? Land inequality and rural dependency in Limpopo Province, South Africa. With Robert Eastwood and Johann Kirsten. J. Development Studies 2006: 42(8), p.1325-49 See Premature deagriculturalisation? Land inequality and rural dependency in Limpopo province, South Africa. and id 21 natural resources highlights 5 and

Food security, farmland access ethics, and land reform. With Yashar Saghai. Global Food Security 2016. At

Staples production: efficient ‘subsistence’ smallholders are key to poverty reduction, development, and trade. In press in G. Feder and P. Pingali (eds.), Essays in Honour of Hans Binswanger: Proceedings of Milan 2015 Conference

Prices, micro-behaviour, liberalisation

Should reasonable farmers respond to price changes? Modern Asian Studies 1967, 1(1):95-7

The theory of the optimising peasant. J. Development Studies 1968, 4:327-51.

Farm price stabilisation in underdeveloped agricultures. In Unfashionable economics: essays in honour of Lord Balogh, ed. Paul Streeten. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1970

Perverse’ responses by factor users to factor cost changes: Need policy advisors worry? J. Development Economics 1979, 6(1):73-78

Foreword to Paul Streeten, What price food? Agricultural price policies in developing countries. London: Palgrave MacMillan 1987.

Limits of price policy for agriculture: which way for the World Bank? Development Policy Review 1987, 5(2):1297-215

Market relaxation and agricultural development. In Christopher Colclough and James Manor (eds.), States or Markets? Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991

Stabilization and structural reform in India. With Robert Cassen and Vijay Joshi. Contemporary South Asia 1993, 2(2):165-198

Comments on agricultural price policy for growth. With John Mellor and Sarfraz Khan Qureshi. The Pakistan Development Review 1994, 33(4):497-532

The theory of the optimising peasant. J. Development Studies 1968, 4:327-51.

Market, redistributive, and proto-reform: can liberalization help the poor? Asian Development Review 1995, 13:1-35.

Liberalisation, poverty reduction and agricultural development in India. In India: the future of economic reform (Robert Cassen and Vijay Joshi eds). Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1995

Technology: general and infrastructure

Agriculture and central physical grid infrastructure. In John Mellor et al. (eds.), Accelerating Food Production in sub-Saharan Africa, Johns Hopkins, 1987

Reconnecting agricultural technology to human development. With Rachel Blackman and Saurabh Sinha. J. Human Development 2002, 3(1):123-152

The family farm in a globalizing world: the role of crop science in alleviating poverty. 2020 Vision Discussion paper #40. 2009. International Food Policy Research Institute. At or

From policy aims and small-farm characteristics to farm science needs. World Development 2010, 38(10):1399-1412. At

Green Revolutions for Sub-Saharan Africa? With Diana Hunt. Chatham House briefing paper, January 2011. At

Technology: seeds

Inter-farm, inter-regional and farm-non-farm income distribution: The impact of the new cereal varieties. World Development 1978, 6(3):319-337

Agricultural research and modern plant varieties in Sub‐Saharan Africa: Generalizations, realities and conclusions. J. International Development 1989, 1(1):168-179

Modern Varieties, International Agricultural Research, and the Poor. With Richard Longhurst. Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 1985. At A completely revised and expanded version is the book, New Seeds and Poor People (!989).

Technology: storage

Research into the economics of food storage in less developed countries: prospects for a contribution from UK technical assistance . Communications series no. 61, IDS, Brighton. 1970

Cost-benefit analysis of crop storage improvements: a south Indian pilot study. With Ian Cook and Navakundam Nair. DP-56: Brighton, IDS, 1974

What the Rats Eat Away. With Martin Greeley. Economic and Political Weekly, 15 May

1976, 11(20):2-723

Post-harvest technology and the reduction of hunger. IDS Bulletin, 1982, 13(3):4-11.

Technology: transgenics

Foreword to Iftikhar Ahmed, Biotechnology: a hope or a threat? World Employment Programme Basingstoke: Macmillan 1992

Reviving global poverty reduction: what role for genetically modified plants? Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Washington D.C.: Crawford Memorial Lecture. Later version in J. International Development 2001, 13:7: 823-846

Reviving global poverty reduction: what role for genetically modified plants? J. International Development 2001, 13(7):823-846

Plant breeding and poverty: can transgenic seeds replicate the ‘green revolution’ as a source of gains for the poor? J. Development Studies 2007, 43(1):31-62 At

Technology: water

The effects of irrigation on poverty: a framework for analysis. With Jean-Marc Faures and Julie Litchfield. Journal of Water Policy 2003, 5:413-427

Preliminary review of the impact of irrigation on poverty with special emphasis on Asia. With Julie Litchfield. Support from Rachel Blackman, Darshini de Zoysa, Lubina Qureshy and Hugh Waddington. Poverty Research Unit, Sussex University. FAO agl/misc/34/2003, Rome, 2003 At

Farm water and rural poverty reduction in developing Asia. Irrigation and Drainage 2007, 56(23):127-146 At


Africa’s national-accounts mess: review article. J. Development Studies 2013, 49(12):1765-71

African Food Output Statistics: A Role for the World Bank? Mimeo, IDS, Brighton, 1985

Improving the Basic Data: Are Present Techniques Satisfactory? Paper presented at SOEC/World Food Council workshop on Statistics in Support of African Food Strategies and Policies, Brussels, 13-16 May 1986

Food production data: Does anyone care? In Figures for Food in Africa Eurostat News special edition, 1987, pp. 16-25


Population, land and decreasing returns to agricultural labour. Bulletin of the Oxford University Institute of Economics and Statistics 1964, 26(2):123-157

Population change in the wake of agricultural improvement: lessons for Pakistan. With Stephen Vosti. Pakistan Development Review 1982, 31(4):715-728

Demography and poverty. Staff working paper # 623. 1983. World Bank. At

Responses to Rural Population Growth: Malthus and the Moderns. Population and Development Review 1989, 15:215-242

An escape from the Malthus rectangle? Poverty and conversion efficiency. Pakistan Development Review 1994, 33(4):433-461

The impact of technical change in agriculture on human fertility: district-level evidence from India. With Stephen Vosti and Julie Witcover. 1994: Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), Environment and Production Technology Division

Interactions between population and poverty. In M. Livi-Bacci and G. de Santis (eds.), Population, Distribution and Development. 1998. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The impact of changes in human fertility on poverty. With Robert Eastwood. J. Development Studies 1999, 36(1):1-30 (Dudley Seers Prize). [Earlier draft as 1996 paper for Economics Subject Group, Sussex University]

Review article: Twenty-first Century India: Population, Economy, Human Development and Environment (ed Tim Dyson, Robert Cassen & Leela Visaria). Population Studies 2005, 59(1):122-36 At

Demographic transition and poverty: effects via economic growth, distribution, and conversion. With Robert Eastwood. Ch. 9 in Population Matters (ed. Nancy Birdsall), Oxford University Press, 2009

Demographic transition in sub-Saharan Africa: how big will the demographic dividend be? With Robert Eastwood. Population Studies 2011, 65(1):9-35

The demographic dividend: retrospect and prospect. With Robert Eastwood. Economic Affairs 2012, 32(1):26-30

DEVELOPMENT THEORY (including aspects of economic, political, and planning theory)

The mythology of affluence. New Left Review 1966: I/35.

Mistakes by what standards of error? Review article of J. Healey, The Development of Social Overhead Capital in India, Cambridge, 1967. Modern Asian Studies 1967, 1(3):297-302

Interdisciplinary studies in less developed countries J. Development Studies 1970, 7(1):5-18

Confrontation versus co-operation : poor countries’ dwindling external options, “bargaining”, and the case for multiple bilateralisms. Institute of Development Studies Bulletin 1974, 6(2):116-131 At

The new economics of growth: Review article of John Mellor, The New Economics of Growth. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976. World Development 1977, 5(3):267-270

Technological cures for social pathologies. J. Development Studies 1979, 15(4):342-349. Review article of Green Revolution? ed. B.H. Farmer. Macmillan, 1977

On not being against socialism. J. Peasant Studies 1977, 5(1):112-113

A problem in poverty measurement. Mathematical Social Sciences 1985, 10(1):91-97

Family, fungibility and formality: rural advantages of informal non-farm enterprise versus the urban-formal state. Pp.189-242 in S. Amin (ed.), Human Resources, Employment and Development, vol. 5: Developing Countries. London: MacMillan, for International Economic Association, 1984.

Prisoners’ dilemma and Coase’s theorem: a case for democracy in less developed countries. In Robin Matthews (ed.) Economy and Democracy. 1985. London: MacMillan.

Development studies: Findings, frontiers and fights World Development 1987, 15(4):517-525

Agriculture, rural people, the state and the surplus in some Asian countries: Thoughts on some implications of three recent approaches in social science. World Development 1989, 17(10):1553-71

The state of development economics: progress and perspectives (Review article). The Economic J. 1989, 99(397):884-887

The state-market dilemma, civil society, and structural adjustment: any cross- Commonwealth lessons? The Round Table 1991, 80(317):21-31

Economics and anthropology: grounding models in relationships. World Development 1992, 20(10):1541-1546

The Great Escape. Angus Deaton Review article. J. Development Studies 2016 (1):1-4


Copperplating one’s navel. IDS Bulletin 1971, 4(1):12-13

New strategies and successful examples for sustainable development in the Third World. United States. Congress. Joint Economic Committee. Subcommittee on Technology and National Security. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Inst., Working Paper #170, 1989

A note on poverty and sustainability. IDS Bulletin 1991, 22(4):12-16

Accelerated resource degradation by agriculture in developing countries? The role of population change and responses to it. In Sustainability, Growth, and Poverty Alleviation: a policy and agroecological perspective (S. Vosti and T. Reardon, eds.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins 1997.

“Exogenous” interest rates, technology, and farm prices versus “endogenous” conservation incentives and policies. In Vosti and Reardon, Sustainability, Growth, and Poverty Alleviation, 1997.


Botswana: employment and labour use in Botswana: final report (vol. 1, Report, vol. 2, appendices). European Economic Commission and Ministry of Finance and Development Planning. Gaborone: Government Printer 1978. Also as book.

Labour and Poverty. Staff Working Paper #744. 1983. World Bank. At

Growing points in poverty research: labour issues. 1994. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies At

Creating rural livelihoods: some lessons for South Africa from experience elsewhere. With Merle Lipton. World Development 1993, 21(9):1515-1548

Introduction: Rural Reforms and Rural Livelihoods: The Contexts of International Experience, in Land labour and livelihoods in rural South Africa ed. with Merle Lipton, Mike de Klerk and Frank Ellis. 2 vols. Durban: Indicator Press 1996

Credit and employment for the poor. With Arjan de Haan and Shahin Yaqub. Politica Internazionale 1997, 5:153–66

Income from work: The food-population-resource crisis in the ‘short Africa.’At . Leontief Prize lecture, Tufts University, Medford, MA, 3 April 2012. Revised and shorter version in British Academy Review, Summer 2013, at


General and trade

The fall in commonwealth trade: Two economists debate the issues. With Clive Bell. Round Table 1970, 60(237):39-50

U.N.C.T.A.D. Schmunctad? Why not start again from scratch? Round Table 1972, 62(247):297-308


Brandt: whose common interest? (review article) International Affairs 1980, 56(2):317-327

Aid allocation when aid is inadequate: problems of the non-implementation of the Pearson Report, Brighton IDS 1972, at Later version in T. Byres (ed.), Foreign Resources and Economic Development: a symposium on the report of the Pearson Commission, London: Frank Cass, 1972

Aid-effectiveness: India. With Robert Cassen and John Toye. Development Committee. Task Force on Concessional Flows 1984 SEE ALSO book by Lipton and Toye

The role of the World Bank in agricultural development in the 1990s. With Robert Paarlberg. UN Conference on Trade and Development; UN Development Programme; Group of Twenty-four; International Food Policy Research Institute Washington, D.C., 1990. Later revised as book.

Changing missions at the World Bank. With Robert Paarlberg. World Policy J. 1991, 8(3):475-

Growing mountain, shrinking mouse? Indian poverty and British bilateral aid. Modern Asian Studies 1996, 30(3):481-522

Europe and developing countries

With Roy Pryce and Merlin Stone. An Enlarged European Community and the Less Developed Countries. Report of a conference of Institute of Development Studies and the Centre for Contemporary European Studies at the University of Sussex, July 1970. Falmer: CCES, 1970. Later revised as book.

India and the Enlarged European Community. With Peter Tulloch. Internat. Affairs 1974, 50(1):49-66

African Agricultural Development: The EEC’s New Role. Development Policy Rev.1983, 1(1):1-21

African food strategies and the EEC’s role: an interim review. With Carol Heald. Centre for European Policy Studies, Sussex University. Commissioned Review no. 6. 1984. Later revised as book.

A New Start: Preconditions for a Food Strategy in Zaire. With Susanna Davies. Report to the EEC of Food Strategy Mission to Zaire, Jan-March 18. IDS, Brighton, 1985

How to improve the nutritional impact of Kenya’s national food strategy. With Susanna Davies. Report to the EEC of Food Strategy Mission to Kenya. Brighton IDS 1986


Food problems in South Asia, 1975-90: a report on the conference held at the Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, 1974. DP-78: Brighton, IDS, 1975

Poverty, undernutrition, and hunger. Staff working paper #597. 1983. Washington, D.C: World Bank. At

1988. Agriculture-Health Linkages. With Emanuel de Kadt. Offset Publication #104. Geneva: World Health Organization. At

Attacking undernutrition and poverty: issues of adaptation and sustainability. National Bank News Review 1989, 5(7):49–61 at

How Third World rural households adapt to dietary energy stress: the evidence and the issues. With Philip Payne. Food Policy Reviews 2, International Food Policy Research Institute, 1994. At

Challenges to meet: food and nutrition security in the new millennium. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2001, 60(2):203-214

Toward a food secure future: Ensuring food security for sustainable human development in sub-Saharan Africa. With Pedro Conceição, Sebastian Levine and Alex Warren-Rodríguez. Food Policy 2016, 60:1-9.


Poverty: are there holes in the consensus? World Development 1971, 25(7):1003-1007

Linking voluntary and professional skills in rural poverty reduction: report on discussions in India on proposals to finance an experimental link, 17-28 February 1985 Brighton IDS 1986

Seasonality and ultra-poverty. IDS Bulletin, 1986:17.3. At

Who are the poor? What do they do? What should we do? Michigan State University. Center for Advanced Study of International Development East Lansing, Mich. Mimeo. 1988

The poor and the poorest: some interim findings. Discussion Paper #25. 1988 World Bank At

Progress and poverty DP-293: Brighton, IDS, 1991 (remove)

Poverty reduction, sustainable agriculture and the project cycle. International Fund for Agricultural Development. Technical Advisory Division. Rome 1993

Poverty: a research and policy framework. With Jacques van der Gaag. In Michael Lipton and Jacques van der Gaag, Including the Poor, 1993 (see below)

Poverty and policy. With Martin Ravallion. Ch. 40 in Handbook of Development Economics, 1995, Vol.3, pp.2551-2657 [Earlier working paper version at IDS]

With Siddiq Osmani. Quality of life in emerging Asia. Asian Development Bank: Manila, 1997. Background paper for Emerging Asia: Change and Challenges

Market-friendly public-sector management and poverty in developing countries. Sophia Uni. Tokyo: Inst. Comparative Culture. Advanced Development Management Program #30. 1998

Poverty in emerging Asia: progress, setbacks and log-jams. With Arjan de Haan. Asian Development Review 1998, 16(2):135-176

Pro-poor growth and pro-growth poverty reduction: meaning, evidence and policy implications. With Robert Eastwood. Asian Development Review 2000, 18(2):22-58. At

Poverty and “damaging fluctuations”: how do they relate? With Saurabh Sinha and Shaheen Yaqub. J. African and African Studies 2002, 37(2):186-243. Also in Poverty, Growth and Safety Nets: a comparative regional study (A. Deolalikar, ed.) Willowdale, Ontario: de Sitter

Halving world poverty. With Hugh Waddington. Ch. 7 in Targeting Development: critical perspectives on the millennium development goals, Richard Black & Howard White (eds.) Routledge, 2003

Bottom billion: Countries or people? Review article on The Bottom Billion: why the poorest countries are failing and what can be done about it by Paul Collier. In J. of Development Studies 2012, 44(5):750–760. At


Foreword to Poverty and rural development: planners, peasants and poverty by Karigirappa Puttaswamaiah. Papers from seminar on ‘Planners, Peasants and Poverty: Rural-Urban and Farm-Nonfarm Relations in Economic Development’ (1983, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex) New Delhi Oxford & IBH 1989

Agriculture, rural people, the state and the surplus in some Asian countries: Thoughts on some implications of three recent approaches in social science/ World Development 1989, 17(10):1553-71

Urban bias and agricultural planning. Mimeo, IDS, Brighton, 1968 Cp. in The Crisis of Indian Planning (eds. Streeten and Lipton).

Urban bias and rural planning: strategy for agriculture. In The Crisis of Indian Planning : Economic Planning in the 1960s ed. Michael Lipton &Paul Streeten Oxford: Oxford University Press 1968

Urban bias and food policy in poor countries. Food Policy 1975, 1(1):41-52

Urban bias: Seers versus Lipton. With Dudley Seers. DP-116, IDS, Brighton. 1977

Migration from rural areas of poor countries: the impact on rural productivity and income distribution. World Development 1989, 8:1-24

Rural development and retention of the rural population in the countryside. Canadian J. Development Studies 1982: 3:11-37

Urban bias revisited. J. Development Studies 1984, 20(3):139-166

Urban bias: of consequences, classes and causality J. Development Studies 1993, 29(4):229-58.

Rural poverty reduction::the neglected priority. 2000. World Bank, at

Rural-urban dimensions of inequality change. With Robert Eastwood. World Institute for Development Economics Research Working Paper #200. Helsinki 2000. Version below.

Rural and urban income inequality and poverty: Does convergence between sectors offset divergence within them? With Robert Eastwood. Ch. 5 in Inequality, Growth and Poverty in an Era of Liberalization and Globalization, ed. G. Andrea Cornia, Oxford, 2004. Fuller version above.

Reducing inequality and poverty during liberalisation in China: rural and agricultural experiences and policy options. With Qi Zhang. 2007. PRUS Working Paper #37, Poverty Research Unit, Univ. of Sussex. At /file.php?name=wp37.pdf&site=260 Later version below.

Reducing inequality and poverty during liberalization in China: rural and agricultural experiences and policy options. With Qi Zhang. 2009. In Changing Contours of Asian Agriculture: policies, performance and challenges. Essays in honour of Professor V. S. Vyas, ed. Surjit Singh and V. Ratna Reddy. Jaipiur: Inst. of Development Studies with Academic Foundation, New Delhi. 2009.

Urban bias and inequality. In Development and underdevelopment: the political economy of global inequality ed. Mitchell Seligson and John Passé-Smith. Fifth ed. Boulder, Co: Lynne Rienner. 2014.

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